Birds in Turkey are greatly diverse and unique, comprising of over 465 species. With habitats ranging from the steppes, forests, wetlands, and coastal areas, the birds in Turkey have adapted to their surroundings to survive and thrive.
These birds play significant roles in the ecological balance of the region, and are also of cultural and economic significance.
With birdwatching becoming an increasingly popular pastime, the diversity of the bird population in Turkey has become a major attraction for nature lovers and ornithologists alike.
In this article, we will explore the diverse species of birds found in Turkey, their habitats and the role they play in the ecosystem.
The Phasianidae family of birds is one that contains many popular gamebirds, with a total of 185 species divided across 54 genera.
These heavy ground-living birds include pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, and turkeys among others like Old World quail and peafowl.
This large family was formerly split into two subfamilies known as the Phasianinae and Perdicinae but this classification has since been changed to reflect more current scientific findings on them.
All these different types of birds have certain things in common such as their strong legs for scratching through leaves or soil looking for food items including insects, seeds, and other vegetation which makes up most of their diet.
They also all tend to be quite colorful in order to attract mates during breeding season when males will often display vibrant feathers or do dances around females in an attempt at courtship ritual displays.
The majority are monogamous creatures too although some may form short-term pair bonds before going off alone again once mating has taken place – either way.
There tends to be very little parental care given by adults after eggs have hatched so chicks need to fend for themselves right away.Scientific classification:
|Family||Phasianidae Horsfield, 1821|
Gulls are a type of seabird in the family Laridae found worldwide. They are highly adaptable, often seen soaring above shorelines or near bodies of water.
Gulls have strong wings and long bills and vary greatly in size, colouration and behaviour from one species to another.
Some gull species feed on fish while others scavenge for food such as insects, small mammals or discarded human refuse.
Despite their different dietary habits they all share common traits including webbed feet which enable them to swim gracefully through the water after prey items like crabs or molluscs.
Gulls generally nest close to the shoreline where there is an abundance of available food sources making them excellent hunters that can live comfortably both on land and at sea.Scientific classification:
|Family||Laridae Rafinesque, 1815|
Plovers are a family of around 64-68 species of ground-dwelling birds, commonly found in open country such as fields, meadows and tundras.
They have short bills with webbed feet to help them forage through mud or shallow water.
Plover plumage is usually mottled brown though some species may have brighter colors on the head and wings.
These birds feed mainly on insects but can also eat small crustaceans and worms.
Plovers breed during springtime when they dig holes in sandy or pebbled beaches to lay their eggs which hatch after about 3 weeks incubation period.
They use distraction display behaviour by pretending an injury to the predators away from their nests if needed for protecting their young ones.Scientific classification:
|Family||Charadriidae Leach, 1820|
Bustards are large, terrestrial birds that inhabit dry grassland areas and the steppes of the Old World. They range from 40-150 cm in length and belong to the family Otididae.
Bustards have an omnivorous diet consisting of leaves, buds, seeds, fruit as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.
These birds usually live a solitary life but can be seen gathering around water sources or food during certain times of year such as mating season.
Due to their large size they are vulnerable to predation by foxes or other animals which is why they tend to remain alert at all times.
When in open spaces while relying on camouflage for protection against predators when out in tall vegetation coverings.Scientific classification:
|Order||Otidiformes Wagler, 1830|
|Family||Otididae Rafinesque, 1815|
5. Black Stork
The Black Stork is a majestic bird, with its glossy black feathers and long red legs. Its wingspan ranges from 57 to 61 inches, while it measures an average of 37 to 39 inches tall from beak tip to tail end.
The white underparts contrast perfectly against the dark plumage and are complimented by the vivid red beak.
First described in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus in his “Systema Naturae”, this species has since become popular among bird watchers and naturalists alike for its beauty and gracefulness when flying through the sky.Scientific classification:
6. White-Throated Kingfisher
The White-throated Kingfisher is a beautiful bird with bright colors and distinct features. Its back, wings and tail are a deep blue while the head, breast, throat and belly are white.
It has two black stripes across its eyes which contrast nicely against its orange beak and feet.
These birds can often be found perching on tree branches or hovering over creeks in search of food like fish or small insects such as grasshoppers or crickets.
They use their sharp bill to pluck prey from water surfaces then swallow them whole after making adjustments for size by beating it against rocks if necessary.
The White-throated Kingfisher breeds during monsoon season when rainfall increases levels in rivers leading to an abundance of aquatic life that these birds love so much.Scientific classification:
7. Wild Turkey
Wild turkeys are large birds native to North America, and the heaviest members of the Galliformes order.
They have long reddish-yellow legs with grayish-green feathers which distinguish them from their domesticated cousin.
Their population has been steadily increasing due to conservation efforts since being declared endangered in 1975.
Wild turkeys can be found across forests, meadows and open woodlands where they feed on insects, plant materials and small animals such as lizards or frogs.
As opportunistic omnivores they also take advantage of human food sources when available making them a familiar sight around campgrounds and picnic areas during summer months.
These majestic creatures often roost in trees at night for protection against predators but will fly off into flocks if disturbed by humans or other nearby threats .Scientific classification:
Turkey is a large bird native to North America and belongs to the genus Meleagris. It has two species: wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) found in eastern and central North America, while ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata) inhabits Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico.
Males have distinctive fleshy wattle known as snood on their beaks which make them easily identifiable.
Turkeys are omnivorous birds, mainly eating seeds, nuts, fruits or plants but also occasionally preying small animals like insects or lizards for food intake.
They typically inhabit open woods and forest clearings where they build nests at ground level by scratching leaves into a shallow depression with wings whirring loudly during courtship displays usually seen between April-May season each year.Scientific classification:
|Genus||Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758|
Shorebirds, a diverse group of birds in the Charadriiformes order, are found near water on every continent except Antarctica.
These small to medium-sized birds feed mainly on invertebrates and other small animals but can also be pelagic seabirds or inhabit deserts.
Shorebirds use their long bills to probe mudflats for food like worms and mollusks while some species plunge into the ocean’s depths in search of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp.
They have strong legs equipped with webbed feet which allow them to move quickly when searching for prey across wetlands, sandbars, beaches and swamps.
Their feathers make them well adapted to life by land or sea due to its hydrophobic nature which helps reduce drag during swimming or flying through windy conditions making it easier for shorebirds survive tough environments around the world.Scientific classification:
|Order||Charadriiformes Huxley, 1867|
Bee-eaters are one of the most beautiful and vibrant birds in existence. They have a slender body, long wings, down turned bills and their signature elongated central tail feathers which make them instantly recognizable from afar.
Their plumage is incredibly colorful with many shades ranging from blues to greens to reds that glisten when they fly through the air.
These stunning creatures can be found all over Africa, Asia, Southern Europe, Australia and New Guinea where they feed mainly on bees but also other insects like flies or wasps as well as small mammals such as lizards or rodents.
Bee-eaters live in colonies near rivers or wetlands so that they may easily hunt for food while staying close together for safety purposes.
Additionally it allows them to better display their impressive courtship dances during mating season.Scientific classification:
|Family||Meropidae Rafinesque, 1815|
Ducks are water birds belonging to the family of Anatidae. They have a worldwide distribution except Antarctica and are highly adapted for swimming, floating on water surface or in shallow depths.
Ducks come in various sizes ranging from small teals to large swans with around 174 species found across 43 genera.
Their feathers make them waterproof enabling ducks to stay afloat even in stormy waters while their webbed feet allow them to swim gracefully underwater.
Ducks usually feed by filtering food items such as insects, molluscs and crustaceans through their bills but some also graze on land vegetation like grasses & grains depending upon availability of resources at different locations they inhabit.Scientific classification:
|Family||Anatidae Leach, 1820|
12. Black Francolin
Black francolin is a species of gamebird belonging to the pheasant family. It was once known as black partridge and is now declared as state bird of Haryana, India.
The adult males are generally about 33-36 cm in length with an average weight of 453 gm.
They have glossy black plumage with white spotting on their wings and body parts along with barring patterns on tail feathers which makes them look attractive.
Their call sounds like ‘kattar kattar’ continuously repeated at regular intervals throughout the day during breeding season from April – June when they become highly vocal for mating purpose.
These birds can be found in open grasslands, scrub forests or agricultural fields where plenty of food (mainly insects) is available for survival & reproduction purposes making it one of the most common avifauna across its range countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan & Nepal etc..Scientific classification:
13. Eurasian Collared Dove
The Eurasian collared dove is a species of bird native to Europe and Asia, with its range expanding through introduction in Japan, North America, and islands in the Caribbean.
It has become so widespread that it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The scientific name for this bird was proposed by Hungarian naturalist Imre Frivaldsz – Columba decaocto.
This beautiful creature typically measures between 33-37 cm from tip to tail feathers, displaying an overall greyish brown plumage; they also have distinctive black half collar around their neck which gives them their common name.
These birds are mainly found inhabiting open woodlands or agricultural lands near human settlements where there’s plenty of food available such as grain fields or gardens where fruits can be eaten off trees.
With a vast global population trend increasing steadily each year these birds make great additions to many backyards throughout the world.Scientific classification:
14. Turkey Vulture
The turkey vulture is a large bird of prey that can be found in many parts of the world. It has a wingspan of up to 6 feet and its feathers are mostly black with brownish-red patches on the underside which give it an overall dark red appearance.
Its head is bald, which helps protect it from getting overheated when flying long distances looking for food.
The Turkey Vulture usually feeds off carrion but will also feed on fruit and insects.
Its keen eyesight allows them to spot potential meals from miles away while they soar through the sky using their broad wings and thermal air currents to stay aloft without expending much energy.
They are very important scavengers as they keep ecosystems healthy by consuming dead animals before disease can spread amongst living creatures or contaminate local water sources like rivers or lakesScientific classification:
15. Crow Family
The Crow family is a cosmopolitan group of birds that contains crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies and more.
Altogether there are 133 members in this bird family which all share similar characteristics such as large beaks and feet.
The genus Corvus alone makes up over a third of the entire crow family population with species like the common crow or blackbird being some of its most recognizable members.
All these birds have strong social bonds so they often travel in groups to find food sources or build nests together for protection against predators.
With their intelligence and adaptation skills they are able to survive almost anywhere on Earth from mountains to cities making them one of the world’s most successful families of avian creaturesScientific classification:
|Family||Corvidae Leach, 1820|
Grebes are a type of diving bird found in freshwater habitats around the world. They belong to the order Podicipediformes and have 22 species that exist across six genera.
Some species can also be found in marine environments during their migration or winter season, and some even live flightless lives on stable lakes.
Grebes vary greatly between regions; for example, they range from 4-32 inches long with anywhere from 8-30 ounces of weight depending on which species it is.
Their plumage may be black, browns/grays or whites but usually consist of bright colors such as yellows, blues and greens while underwater they use these feathers to help them streamline through the water quickly.Scientific classification:
|Order||Podicipediformes Fürbringer, 1888|
|Family||Podicipedidae Bonaparte, 1831|
17. Old World Flycatchers
The Old World Flycatcher is a family of small passerine birds, native to Europe, Africa and Asia. They are mainly insectivorous arboreal birds that feed on insects they catch in the air or trees.
Their wingspan ranges from 5-11 inches long with males usually being slightly larger than females.
The coloration of these birds can range greatly depending on species but typically have dull greyish brown upperparts and pale undersides which help them blend into their environment for hunting purposes.
Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica) and Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) are two exceptions as they can be found in North America too.
These charming little creatures make fun additions to birdwatching lists all over the world because of their vibrant colors and interesting behaviors.Scientific classification:
|Family||Muscicapidae Fleming J., 1822|
Passerines are a vast order of birds, comprising more than half the species in existence. Many familiar garden and woodland species fall into this category such as sparrows, blackbirds, finches and warblers.
They can be recognised by their arrangement of toes; three pointing forward with one back which helps them perch on branches or wires.
Passerines range from tiny wrens to large crows and have adapted to inhabit many environments around the world including forests, mountainsides and deserts.
They feed mainly on insects but some also consume fruit and seeds depending on their diet preferences.
Their diversity is truly remarkable from vibrant coloured tropical parrots to drab winter thrushes – making passerine birds an integral part of our natural heritage.Scientific classification:
|Order||Passeriformes Linnaeus, 1758|
Hoopoes are a fascinating species of bird, found across Africa, Asia and Europe. They have beautiful plumage with unique ‘crowns’ of feathers on their heads.
Three living and one extinct species exist – although for some time they were all classed as the same species: Upupa epops. Some taxonomists still believe this to be true.
These birds are often associated with royalty due to the impressive crown-like crest atop their head, adding an extra element of mystery and exoticism to these creatures.
Hoopoes can also produce loud calls which sound like “hoo-poo” hence why they’ve been given such an apt name.Scientific classification:
|Family||Upupidae Leach, 1820|
|Genus||Upupa Linnaeus, 1758|
20. Cream-Colored Courser
The Cream-colored Courser is a species of wader belonging to the Glareolidae family. It can be found across Western Asia and North Africa and inhabits dry, open semi-desert habitats.
These birds have adapted well to their environment; they are able to run quickly in search of insect prey on the ground which explains their scientific name Cursorius cursor – derived from Latin for ‘runner’.
The coursers also inhabit the Canary Islands as well as Cape Verde where breeding occurs during summer months before migration back south begins in autumn and winter months.
They are easily identified by their distinctive cream coloration with brown streaking along wings, neck and chest region making them an important part of these arid ecosystems.Scientific classification:
21. Eurasian Stone-Curlew
The Eurasian stone-curlew, also known as the Eurasian thick-knee, is a species of bird from the Burhinidae family. It was first described by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 and is mainly found in England.
These birds have brown feathers with black markings on their wings and head; they also possess long beaks for catching prey.
They usually feed on insects, small rodents, worms and other invertebrates that can be found near water sources or open areas such as fields and meadows.
Stone curlews are mostly active during night time but can occasionally be seen during day light hours too.
During breeding season these birds make loud calls to attract mates and ward off predators while defending their nests which are often built in grassy plains or dry moorside land away from human activity or disturbance.Scientific classification:
22. Great White Pelican
The Great White Pelican is a large bird from the pelican family that breeds in southeastern Europe, Asia and Africa. It inhabits shallow lakes and swamps where it can be seen foraging for food with its long bill.
These majestic birds have white feathers on their body, black wings and tail feathers, along with an orange-colored pouch under their bill.
They are also known to form flocks of up to thousands of individuals when they migrate or gather at breeding sites in search of fish.
The IUCN Red List classifies them as a species of least concern due to stable populations across many regions worldwide.Scientific classification:
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23. Common Swift
The Common swift is a medium-sized bird with an appearance similar to the barn swallow or house martin.
Its wings are larger, however it is not related to these species but instead belongs in its own order of Apodiformes.
The similarities between the two groups have come about due to convergent evolution and a shared environment.
As for relatives, they can be found among New World hummingbirds and South American swifts; whereas more distant cousins include nightjars as well as treeswifts from Asia/Africa and Australian swiftspecies.
These birds live up high in the air where they remain on constant flight even when sleeping or eating.
They usually migrate south during winter months then return again each springtime bringing life back into our skies.Scientific classification:
Starlings are small to medium-sized birds belonging to the Sturnidae family. They have a unique iridescent plumage, making them popularly known as glossy starlings in Africa and mynas in Asia.
Starlings inhabit Europe, Asia and Africa; some species even migrate between continents for food or better climates.
These birds form large flocks of up to thousands at a time during their migration periods, creating spectacular visual displays while they soar through the sky.
Besides being beautiful creatures, starlings can also imitate sounds such as human speech – an impressive feat that has been documented by many ornithologists over the years.Scientific classification:
|Family||Sturnidae Rafinesque, 1815|
25. Common Chaffinch
The Common Chaffinch is a beautifully coloured small passerine bird belonging to the finch family.
The males have striking blue-grey caps and rust-red underparts, while the females are more subtle in their colouring but both possess two distinct white wing bars and white sides on their tails.
This gorgeous bird has an incredibly strong voice which can be heard for miles as it sings from exposed perches during mating season.
It lives mainly throughout Europe but also in parts of North Africa and Asia too, favouring woodland areas with plenty of shrubs or trees nearby where they find shelter amongst foliage when needed.
They feed predominantly on seeds from weeds or grains found within grasslands making them particularly useful birds for farmers who rely heavily upon pest control that these little ones provide.Scientific classification:
26. Bearded Reedling
The Bearded Reedling is a small passerine bird found in reed-beds across Europe, Asia and North Africa.
It is easily identified by its distinct black and white plumage with males having yellow faces.
This species belongs to the only family of birds known as Panuridae and was first described by Carl Linnaeus back in 1758.
They feed on insects such as beetles, flies, moths among others but also consume seeds from plants like sedges or rushes during winter months when food availability decreases significantly.
These birds are territorial meaning that they have their own area where they live which can vary from 8 to 12 hectares depending on the seasonality of insect abundance within these areas making them an important part for maintaining healthy ecosystems in wetlands around their range.Scientific classification:
|Family||Panuridae Des Murs, 1860|
|Genus||Panurus Koch, 1816|
Tit birds are small passerine birds belonging to the family Paridae, found mainly in Northern Hemisphere and Africa.
These active little birds can be seen singing sweet songs throughout the day or scavenging for food at feeders.
They have short, stout bills which they use to crack open seeds and nuts with ease. Tit species range from chickadees to titmice; all of them sport a distinctive black head cap that stands out against their pale grey bodies.
Their bright eyes allow them excellent vision while searching for food – even on gloomy days when other predators may not see as well.
Tits are an important part of any healthy ecosystem and provide many ecological services such as insect control and seed dispersal.Scientific classification:
|Family||Paridae Vigors, 1825|
28. Eurasian Jay
The Eurasian jay is a beautiful passerine bird of the crow family, Corvidae. It has bright pinkish brown plumage with white throat and two black stripes on each side.
The upper wings have an eye-catching blue panel while its tail is all black in color. This species mainly resides in woodlands, spanning over vast regions from western Europe to India and even north-west Africa.
Its diet consists of small invertebrates like insects as well as fruits, seeds and nuts making it quite adaptable when it comes to food sources.
With its loud calls echoing through the forests they inhabit, this amazing creature will definitely make your day brighter if you ever get the chance to spot one.Scientific classification:
Cormorants are a family of aquatic birds found around the world. They include 40 species, such as great cormorants and common shags.
In Britain, these two species are the most commonly seen in their natural habitats.
Cormorants have long necks, webbed feet and can be identified by their glossy black feathers which they use to help them swim through water with ease as they hunt for food like fish or crustaceans.
They have an impressive wingspan often reaching up to five feet across when fully extended.
Despite being strong swimmers, these birds also enjoy spending time perched on rocks near rivers or shorelines where they will preen themselves in order to keep clean and dry during cooler weather conditionsScientific classification:
|Family||Phalacrocoracidae Reichenbach, 1850|
Threskiornithidae is a family of large wading birds which includes 36 species. These birds are traditionally divided into two subfamilies – the ibises and the spoonbills.
However, recent genetic analysis has shown that spoonbills actually belong to Old World ibis group, while New World ibises form an early offshoot from this lineage.
Threskiornithidse members have long curved beaks with serrated edges used for catching fish in shallow water or mudflats, as well as other aquatic invertebrates like crustaceans and mollusks.
They also feed on plant matter such as grains and seeds found close to wetlands areas where they live.
This diverse diet makes them important scavengers in their ecosystems, helping maintain healthy populations of native wildlife by controlling insect numbers and dispersing energy-rich seeds throughout wetland habitats.Scientific classification:
|Family||Threskiornithidae Richmond, 1917|
31. Great Bustard
The Great Bustard is a large bird found in open grasslands and farmland across Europe, Central Asia and northern Morocco.
It has a distinctive appearance – its feathers are grey-brown with white below the neck while its head is dark brown.
The species was listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 1996 due to population declines caused by habitat loss, overhunting and illegal trade of eggs or chicks.
Conservation efforts provide hope for this majestic creature’s future – some European countries have reintroduced them back into their native habitats through captive breeding programs.
There’s no doubt that we must protect these beautiful birds if they’re to continue soaring majestically above our landscapes for years to come.Scientific classification:
32. Red-Throated Loon
The Red-throated Loon is a migratory bird found in the northern hemisphere, with its breeding grounds primarily located in Arctic regions and wintering spots near coastal waters.
With an average length of 55 – 67 cm (22 – 26 inches), it’s the smallest member of the loon or diver family.
Its namesake comes from its bright red throat patch which contrasts against its white underside and grey back.
This species has adapted to life on icy seas; they are strong swimmers with powerful wings for long flights over open water when migrating seasonally.
Their diet consists mostly of fish but can also include crustaceans, molluscs, amphibians and insects depending on availability.Scientific classification:
33. Glossy Ibis
The Glossy Ibis is a water bird that belongs to the family Threskiornithidae. It has an unique bill in the shape of a sickle, which gave it its scientific name – Plegadis falcinellus.
It can be found widely across Europe, Asia and Africa, with scattered nesting sites in warm regions.
Its feathers are black-brown on top and chestnut brown from below; their wings have glossy greenish-purple sheen when seen from afar.
They mainly feed on small insects like grasshoppers, spiders or earthworms as well as crustaceans or amphibians caught while wading through shallow waters.
During breeding season they also consume plant material such as rice grains or corn kernels provided by humans near habitat areas where they nest.Scientific classification:
Skuas are a group of predatory seabirds with seven species, all belonging to the genus Stercorarius.
They are also known as “Jaegers” in North America and their name originates from the Faroese word for Great Skua – skúgvur.
These birds typically inhabit coastal areas or open oceans where they feed on fish, krill and other marine creatures.
Skuas can be distinguished by their pointed wings which help them fly long distances while hunting food.
Their distinctive colouration varies depending on age and habitat but generally includes greyish brown upperparts and white underparts with black streaks along its belly area.
The overall size ranges from 24-40 cm making these one of the larger sea bird species.Scientific classification:
|Family||Stercorariidae Gray, 1871|
|Genus||Stercorarius Brisson, 1760|
35. Masked Shrike
The Masked Shrike is a species of bird in the shrike family, found in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. It breeds both in Iraq and Iran, before migrating to northeast Africa for winter.
This short-distance migrant can be seen as far away as northern and western Europe on occasions too.
The Masked Shrike sports an attractive black mask across its eyes with red patches near its bill. Its wings are greyish brown while it’s back is much darker – almost black.
An interesting feature about this beautiful bird is that it often impales prey onto thorns or barbed wire fences which they use as larders when food sources become scarce.Scientific classification:
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Swifts are small, aerial birds that belong to the Apodidae family. They look similar to swallows but they aren’t related in any way.
Swifts have evolved differently from other passerines and instead share an order with hummingbirds – the Apodiformes.
The Hemiprocnidae also shares a close relationship with swifts, being referred to as ‘treeswift’ due to their affinity for perching on trees rather than flying through the air like regular swifts do.
While these two species may appear quite similar at first glance, closer inspection will reveal vast differences between them which has come about over time via convergent evolution.Scientific classification:
|Family||Apodidae Hartert, 1897|
37. Black-Winged Stilt
The Black-winged Stilt is a wading bird that belongs to the avocet and stilt family. It has very long legs, making it well adapted for standing in shallow water while searching for food like small fish and insects.
Its scientific name Himantopus himantopus can be applied either to one cosmopolitan species or the form found across Europe, Asia and Africa which equals its nominate group.
Generally this species is black on top with an all white underside but it also features red eyes with a thin white ring around each one as well as black wings flecked with white feathers towards the tips of their wings.Scientific classification:
38. Penduline Tits
Penduline tits are small passerines with a length ranging from 7.5 to 11 cm, resembling true tits (Paridae). They have delicate bills with needle-like points and their wings appear short and rounded.
These birds build elaborate bag nests that hang from trees over water, giving them the name of “penduline” – meaning hanging. As for diet, they mainly feed on insects and spiders but may also consume some seeds too.
Depending on the species, penduline tits can be found in sub-Saharan Africa or across Eurasia into China and Central Asia as well as parts of North America such as California’s Sierra Nevada range halfway up Mexico’s western coast.Scientific classification:
|Family||Remizidae Olphe-Galliard, 1891|
39. Eurasian Golden Oriole
The Eurasian golden oriole is a beautiful bird belonging to the Old World oriole family of passerine birds that breed in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere.
It migrates from Europe and Palearctic during summer season, and spends its winter months in central and southern Africa.
These birds have an impressive range with large populations which appear to be stable or increasing across much of their range due to conservation efforts.
They are mostly found near forests, woodlands, riverbanks and meadows where they feed on fruits as well as insects such as caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers etc.
The males can easily be identified by their bright yellow plumage while females are more olive coloured.
All in all these stunningly colourful creatures add vibrancy to our environment.Scientific classification:
40. Lesser Kestrel
The Lesser Kestrel is a small falcon species that breeds in various regions of the Mediterranean, Afghanistan, Central Asia, China and Mongolia. During summer they migrate to Africa, Pakistan and even India or Iraq.
The population of this bird has been declining in its European range but it remains rare north of its breeding locations.
Its genus name “Falco” derives from Late Latin meaning sickle which describes their curved beak shape used for hunting prey like insects or lizards.
Their diet also consists mainly on seeds and grains as well as some fruits when available making them versatile hunters able to survive different climates where food may vary seasonally.Scientific classification:
Nightjars are fascinating nocturnal or crepuscular birds belonging to the Caprimulgidae family. These medium-sized birds have long wings, short legs and very small bills.
They can be found across many parts of the world in forests, grasslands and scrubland habitats.
Nightjars feed on insects such as moths, beetles, crickets and cicadas which they catch with their sharp eyesight during night time flights over open fields when hunting for food.
Their scientific name ‘Caprimulgidae’ is derived from an old folktale that claims these birds suck milk from goats.
In reality though, they are harmless creatures who pose no threat to livestock whatsoever.
Nightjars make a variety of different calls ranging from whistles to chirps all throughout the night – adding further mystery to this amazing species.Scientific classification:
|Order||Caprimulgiformes Ridgway, 1881|
|Family||Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825|
42. European Storm Petrel
The European Storm Petrel is a small black seabird with a white rump and wings. It has an unusual, bat-like flight which flutters across the sky.
Its population mainly breeds on islands off the coasts of Europe, but can also be found in parts of North America as well as Japan and Korea.
They feed on planktonic crustaceans such as copepods by ‘pattering’ over water surface or dip-feeding where they plunge into the sea to catch their prey before flying away again.
These birds are elusive yet social when breeding; during this time they form colonies often near cliffs for protection from predators and harsh conditions at sea.Scientific classification:
43. Demoiselle Crane
The Demoiselle Crane, scientifically known as Grus virgo, is a species of crane found in Central Europe and parts of Siberia. They range from the Black Sea to Mongolia and northeastern China.
A small breeding population can be also found in Turkey. These cranes are migratory birds; those living in western Eurasia will spend wintertime in Africa while the Asian populations fly south to India for warmer climates during cold months.
The bird stands at around 1 meter tall with white feathers on its face, neck and breast contrasting against an overall grey body plumage that gives it a unique appearance among other crane species.
Its long legs make them capable of wading through wetlands where they feed on insects, worms and aquatic vegetation when available.
Their calls sound like loud trumpeting which often signals their presence over wide areas even before sighting them.Scientific classification:
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44. Sand Martin
The sand martin, also known as the bank swallow or collared sand martin, is a migratory bird belonging to the swallow family.
It has an extensive summer range that covers most of Europe and other parts of Palearctic region such as North America.
During winter season it can be found in tropical Africa and India. The length of this small passerine bird varies from 12-14 cm with wingspan stretching up to 24 cm long.
Its back feathers are brownish grey while its belly is white in colour with dark streaks on sides.
Sand Martin feeds mainly on flying insects which they catch during their flight along rivers or over wetlands making use of their swift flight abilities at low altitudes foraging food items like flies and mosquitoes midair.Scientific classification:
Sandpiper is a type of wading bird that belongs to the family Scolopacidae. It is a diverse family that includes various species such as curlew and snipe.
Sandpipers have different bill lengths that allow them to feed on small invertebrates and creatures found in mud or soil.
Due to this diversity, different species can coexist in the same habitat without competing for food.
Sandpipers are commonly found near the coast but are also found in other wetland environments.
They are known for their slender legs, long beak, and streamlined body that enables them to move easily in and out of water.
Sandpipers are a unique and fascinating bird species that are interesting to observe in their natural habitat.Scientific classification:
|Family||Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815|
46. Domestic Turkey
The domestic turkey is a type of large bird belonging to the genus Meleagris, closely related to the wild turkey.
It was thought to have been domesticated in central Mesoamerica over 2,000 years ago, but recent studies suggest another domestication event that happened around 200 BCE in what is now the southwestern United States.
These birds are usually raised and consumed for their meat, especially during Thanksgiving and Christmas seasons. They are also popularly kept as pets and in some cases, for egg production.
The male turkey has brightly colored feathers and a distinctive fleshy growth called a wattle, while the female usually lacks these features.
These birds can grow up to 5 feet tall and weigh up to 30 pounds, making them one of the larger domesticated fowl species.Scientific classification:
|Subspecies||M. g. domesticus|
47. Northern Bald Ibis
The northern bald ibis, also known as the hermit ibis or waldrapp, is a migratory bird that inhabits barren or semi-desert environments near running water.
Unlike other ibis species, the glossy black northern bald ibis does not wade in water. It has a striking appearance, with a bright red face and head, and a long, curved red bill.
The bird is about 70 to 80cm in length. During breeding season, the northern bald ibis forms colonies on coastal or mountain cliff ledges.
As a migratory bird, the northern bald ibis is constantly on the move, traveling to various regions throughout the year.
Although it is a beautiful bird, it is unfortunately listed as critically endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.Scientific classification:
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48. Turkey Vultures
Turkey vultures are a type of bird found in the New World vulture family. They are known for their carrion-feeding habits and play an important role in cleaning up decaying animals in their ecosystems.
These medium-sized to large birds have a bald, red head and a dark plumage. They are found throughout the Americas and are particularly abundant in North America.
Turkey vultures have a unique ability to locate their food by their sharp sense of smell, and they can fly for long distances without flapping their wings.
These birds are important scavengers in their ecosystems, helping to prevent the spread of disease and reducing the impact of decaying animals on the environment.
Overall, turkey vultures are fascinating and important birds that play a critical role in their ecosystems.Scientific classification:
|Genus||Cathartes Illiger, 1811|
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49. European Nightjar
The European nightjar is a nocturnal bird that can be found in Europe, the Palearctic region, Mongolia, and Northwestern China.
It belongs to the nightjar family and is known by several names, including the common goatsucker and Eurasian nightjar.
There are six subspecies of this bird. The nightjar is crepuscular, meaning it is most active during dawn and dusk.
Its Latin generic name comes from an old myth that the bird suckled from goats, causing them to stop giving milk.
The European nightjar is well-adapted to its nocturnal lifestyle with large eyes and wide gape that help it catch flying insects in the dark.
Its plumage is cryptic, blending in with its surroundings, making it difficult to spot. The bird usually nests on the ground, and the male performs aerial displays during breeding season.Scientific classification:
50. Little Grebe
The little grebe, also known as dabchick, belongs to the grebe family and is a small water bird. It gets its genus name from the Ancient Greek words for ‘fast’ and ‘to sink under’.
The specific name ruficollis means ‘red-necked’ in Latin. With a length of 23 to 29 centimetres, it is the smallest member of the grebe family.Scientific classification:
Ospreys are a type of bird of prey known for being the only species within the Pandionidae family.
They are commonly referred to as “fish hawks” for their impressive fishing abilities, which they use to catch prey in bodies of water.
While there is some debate over how many extant species of ospreys exist, most experts agree that there is at least one species, with some recognizing two.
Along with their skillful hunting, ospreys are known for their distinctive appearance, which includes a mostly white body and contrasting dark wings.
They can be found in coastal areas and on islands throughout Australia, Southeast Asia, and the Indonesian archipelago.
Despite challenges posed by habitat loss and pollution, osprey populations remain relatively stable and are often the subject of conservation efforts.Scientific classification:
|Family||Pandionidae Sclater & Salvin, 1873|
|Genus||Pandion Savigny, 1809|
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