Estonia is a country located in northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland. The country is home to a diverse range of bird species due to its strategic location on the East Atlantic Flyway.
It offers a variety of habitats including wetlands, forests, and coastal regions, making it an ideal place for birdwatching. Over 350 avian species can be found in Estonia, making it a popular destination for bird enthusiasts.
In this article, we will explore some of the unique and interesting types of birds found in this beautiful country.
Plovers are a family of around 64-68 species of ground-dwelling birds, commonly found in open country such as fields, meadows and tundras.
They have short bills with webbed feet to help them forage through mud or shallow water.
Plover plumage is usually mottled brown though some species may have brighter colors on the head and wings.
These birds feed mainly on insects but can also eat small crustaceans and worms.
Plovers breed during springtime when they dig holes in sandy or pebbled beaches to lay their eggs which hatch after about 3 weeks incubation period.
They use distraction display behaviour by pretending an injury to the predators away from their nests if needed for protecting their young ones.Scientific classification:
|Family||Charadriidae Leach, 1820|
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Glareolidae is a family of wading birds, consisting of four genera and 17 species. They are distinguished from other charadrii by their long bills which have a slight downward curve.
Glareolidae live around open grasslands and deserts, where they hunt for insects using the bill to probe into soil or vegetation.
Most species are found in Africa but two pratincoles inhabit parts of Europe and Asia as well.
Coursers tend to be larger than pratincoles with longer legs allowing them to run quickly across sandy dunes while feeding on small animals like lizards or spiders.
Pratincoles feed mainly on flying insects, snatching them out of midair with great agility during flight.
All glareolids share unique features such as large eyes that help it spot prey at night easily making this group one interesting bird family.Scientific classification:
|Family||Glareolidae CL Brehm, 1831|
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3. Common kingfisher
The Common Kingfisher is a small, sparrow-sized bird that can be found across Eurasia and North Africa. It has the typical short tail and large head of kingfishers with seven different subspecies recognized in its range.
They are mainly resident birds but will migrate away during winter when rivers freeze over. The species usually live near bodies of water such as streams or lakes.
Where they hunt for fish by diving from above into the water after spotting their prey below them.
These brightly coloured birds have an unmistakable vibrant blue plumage along with orange underparts and white patches on their wings which makes them easy to recognize amongst other similar looking species.
Their call is loud and shrill making it one of the most recognizable sounds heard around wetlands throughout Europe.Scientific classification:
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4. Black stork
The Black Stork is a majestic bird, with its glossy black feathers and long red legs. Its wingspan ranges from 57 to 61 inches, while it measures an average of 37 to 39 inches tall from beak tip to tail end.
The white underparts contrast perfectly against the dark plumage and are complimented by the vivid red beak.
First described in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae", this species has since become popular among bird watchers and naturalists alike for its beauty and gracefulness when flying through the sky.Scientific classification:
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5. Barn swallow
The Barn Swallow is a beautiful passerine bird with blue upperparts and a long, deeply forked tail. Found in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas.
It has an astonishingly large natural distribution spanning 251 million square kilometres globally; likely making it one of the world's most widespread species.
This swallow typically nests near human habitation as well as other open areas such as fields or grasslands which provide them with suitable invertebrate prey to feed on.
They are insectivorous birds that often fly together in flocks looking for food over rivers or marshes usually just above tree-top level.
The barn swallow can also be identified by its strong flight consisting of swift continuous wing beats interspersed with glides during which they hold their wings slightly raised at the shoulders giving them distinct V shaped silhouettes in the sky.Scientific classification:
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The Osprey is a majestic bird of prey with an incredibly wide habitat range. It has distinctive brown upperparts and greyish head and underparts, making it easily identifiable in the skies above many regions across the world.
With a wingspan of up to 180cm (71in) and body length reaching 60cm (24in), this large raptor specializes in hunting for fish, soaring high over rivers as well as coasts searching for its next meal.
Despite living near water sources, they can also be found inhabiting mountainsides or even woodlands, proving their incredible adaptability. An impressive species that truly deserves admiration.Scientific classification:
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Shorebirds, a diverse group of birds in the Charadriiformes order, are found near water on every continent except Antarctica.
These small to medium-sized birds feed mainly on invertebrates and other small animals but can also be pelagic seabirds or inhabit deserts.
Shorebirds use their long bills to probe mudflats for food like worms and mollusks while some species plunge into the ocean’s depths in search of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp.
They have strong legs equipped with webbed feet which allow them to move quickly when searching for prey across wetlands, sandbars, beaches and swamps.
Their feathers make them well adapted to life by land or sea due to its hydrophobic nature which helps reduce drag during swimming or flying through windy conditions making it easier for shorebirds survive tough environments around the world.Scientific classification:
|Order||Charadriiformes Huxley, 1867|
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Stone-curlews, also known as dikkops or thick-knees, are a family of birds that have adapted to live in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world.
They can be found in Africa, Asia and Australia with two or more species per region. Despite being classified as waders, most prefer dry arid habitats over moist wetlands.
Stone-curlews typically have long legs which help them navigate through their preferred terrain efficiently; some species even stand at an impressive height when standing on those long legs.
Additionally they feature cryptic plumage which helps them blend into their surroundings while hunting for prey such as insects and small mammals like rodents.
These unique bird's calls are easily recognizable; it has been said that hearing one is similar to listening to someone whistling 'Keee Weee'.Scientific classification:
|Family||Burhinidae Mathews, 1912|
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9. Grey heron
The grey heron is a majestic bird found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. It has long legs to wade through the shallow waters where it feeds on aquatic creatures such as frogs, fish and insects.
In wintertime some migrate southwards but others stay put in their natural habitats; lakes, rivers and marshes. They can also be spotted near coasts or along estuaries.
Grey Herons have beautiful blue-grey feathers and an impressive wingspan that makes them stand out from other birds when they soar gracefully across the sky.
These graceful creatures are not only easy on the eye but wise hunters too.Scientific classification:
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10. White-backed woodpecker
The White-backed Woodpecker is a beautiful bird that can be found in Eurasia. It has white plumage on its back, giving it its name.
Its head and wings are grey with black barring while its breast and belly have red speckles across them.
This species was first described by German naturalist Johann Matthäus Bechstein in 1802 who gave it the scientific binomial of Picus leucotos due to the white colouring along its back from the Greek words "leukos" meaning 'white' and "-nōtos" which means 'backed'.
The type locality for this species is Silesia where these birds are still commonly seen today.Scientific classification:
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11. Old World orioles
Old World orioles are a family of passerine birds found in the Old World. It comprises four genera: piopios, figbirds, pitohuis and the original genus Oriolus.
The African black-headed species have sometimes been removed from this latter group due to their distinct characteristics as well as other proposed splits for Oriolus.
These colorful birds can be identified by their bright yellow or orange plumage that often features darker markings on wings and head areas, although some species may also display a blue hue or stripes across the body feathers.
They typically feed on insects such as caterpillars and grasshoppers but will supplement with small fruits when available too - making them beneficial additions to gardens.Scientific classification:
|Family||Oriolidae Vigors, 1825|
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12. Common greenshank
The Common Greenshank is a type of wader, belonging to the large family Scolopacidae. It's name originates from Aldrovandus in 1599, and references Aristotle's ancient Greek work which mentions a thrush-sized bird with white rump and tail bobbing.
Its scientific name "nebularia" actually means mist. This small bird can be found near wetlands or marshes throughout Europe and Asia - it has even been spotted as far south as Africa.
They are known for their long legs that allow them to easily traverse shallow water while searching for food like insects, crustaceans, mollusks or worms.
The Common Greenshank is an interesting species whose beauty should not go unnoticed by any nature enthusiast.Scientific classification:
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13. Common sandpiper
The Common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) is a small Palearctic wader, found in Eurasia and parts of Africa. It can be identified by its brown back, white breast and distinctive black eye-stripe.
In flight it shows broad wings with white underparts and conspicuous dark patches on the upperwings.
These birds live close to water bodies such as rivers or lakes where they feed mainly on insects, crustaceans and molluscs which they find in mudflats.
They are also known to have hybridized with their American sister species – the Spotted Sandpiper (A macularia).
This bird is territorial during breeding season but forms flocks outside of this period when migrating long distances between wintering grounds throughout Europe, North Africa & South West Asia..Scientific classification:
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14. Red-backed shrike
The Red-backed Shrike is a beautiful member of the shrike family, found in western Europe and central Russia. It is easily identified by its gray mantle, black wings with white spots and red back.
In summer it migrates to eastern tropical Africa or southern Africa where they overwinter.
This bird feeds mainly on insects but also eats small mammals, reptiles and other birds as well as fruit occasionally.
They are known for their hunting techniques which include perching high up in trees then diving down onto their prey below them before returning to eat it at leisure elsewhere.
The Red-backed Shrike is an impressive sight that lives both in our gardens and far away places.Scientific classification:
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15. Western Yellow Wagtail
The Western Yellow Wagtail is a beautiful small passerine bird belonging to the Motacillidae family. It has a slender body that can range from 15-16 cm in length and its wings are mostly yellow with some blue feathers at their tips.
Its tail is black tipped, long and wags constantly during flight making it easy to identify this species of wagtail.
This particular breed breeds mainly throughout temperate Europe and Asia but only reside in milder areas such as western Europe due to colder climates migrating them southwards towards Africa or South Asia for warmer temperatures.
The Western Yellow Wagtails have been known for centuries due to their unique beauty making them an iconic part of many cultures around the world today.Scientific classification:
16. Common cuckoo
The Common Cuckoo is a medium sized bird belonging to the cuckoo family. It is found in Europe and Asia during summers, migrating to Africa for wintering.
This species has adapted an interesting lifestyle of being a brood parasite - it lays its eggs in other birds' nests most often that of dunnocks, meadow pipits and reed warblers.
The host bird then incubates the egg as if it were their own which hatches earlier than any other chicks present there thus gaining more attention from the parent birds resulting in better growth rate for Common Cuckoo chicks who are bigger than even their hosts.Scientific classification:
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17. Great cormorant
The Great Cormorant is a large seabird belonging to the cormorant family. It has many names, including Black Shag in New Zealand and Large Cormorant in India.
Its striking black feathers make it easy to recognise along coastlines or near bodies of water. The bird can measure up to 1 metre long with a wingspan of around two metres and weighs roughly 3 kilograms.
In flight, its neck is stretched out straight ahead while its bill points downwards – an unmistakable sight for any keen observer.
Cormorants are strong swimmers and excellent divers, frequently going underwater in search of food such as fish or crustaceans that they scavenge from the ocean floor.
They live primarily on coasts but have also been seen inland where there are suitable waterways available - providing another opportunity for nature lovers hoping to catch a glimpse of this impressive species.Scientific classification:
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18. Grey partridge
The Grey Partridge is a species of gamebird native to Europe and Asia. It has an iconic rotund body, brown back, grey flanks and chestnut-brown wings with white stripes along the edge.
The bird is named after its scientific name Perdix perdix which originates from Ancient Greek meaning "partridge".
In addition to its appearance, it can also be recognized by its distinct call consisting of three short whistles followed by one long whistle.
This species feeds mainly on seeds but also consumes insects especially during breeding season when they are essential for their young ones growth.
They live in open grasslands or cultivated fields where they find enough food sources and suitable places for nesting like shallow depressions lined with dry vegetation such as leaves or feathers.Scientific classification:
19. Eurasian jay
The Eurasian jay is a beautiful passerine bird of the crow family, Corvidae. It has bright pinkish brown plumage with white throat and two black stripes on each side.
The upper wings have an eye-catching blue panel while its tail is all black in color. This species mainly resides in woodlands, spanning over vast regions from western Europe to India and even north-west Africa.
Its diet consists of small invertebrates like insects as well as fruits, seeds and nuts making it quite adaptable when it comes to food sources.
With its loud calls echoing through the forests they inhabit, this amazing creature will definitely make your day brighter if you ever get the chance to spot one.Scientific classification:
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20. White-tailed eagle
The white-tailed eagle is an impressive species of sea eagle found across temperate Eurasia. This majestic bird belongs to the family Accipitridae, which includes hawks, kites and harriers.
It has a wingspan of up to 2.5 meters and can weigh 4 kilograms or more.
The plumage varies in colour from dark brown above with paler head and neck while its tail is pure white - hence it's name.
They feed mainly on fish but will also take small mammals, birds and carrion when available.
White-tailed eagles are solitary by nature but form pairs during nesting season typically near bodies of water such as lakes or coasts where they build large stick nests on trees or cliffsides for their young ones to hatch safely in peace.Scientific classification:
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Threskiornithidae is a family of large wading birds which includes 36 species. These birds are traditionally divided into two subfamilies - the ibises and the spoonbills.
However, recent genetic analysis has shown that spoonbills actually belong to Old World ibis group, while New World ibises form an early offshoot from this lineage.
Threskiornithidse members have long curved beaks with serrated edges used for catching fish in shallow water or mudflats, as well as other aquatic invertebrates like crustaceans and mollusks.
They also feed on plant matter such as grains and seeds found close to wetlands areas where they live.
This diverse diet makes them important scavengers in their ecosystems, helping maintain healthy populations of native wildlife by controlling insect numbers and dispersing energy-rich seeds throughout wetland habitats.Scientific classification:
|Family||Threskiornithidae Richmond, 1917|
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22. Boreal owl
The Boreal Owl is a small, nocturnal bird of the Strigidae family commonly found in North America and Europe.
It's also known as Tengmalm’s owl after Swedish naturalist Peter Gustaf Tengmalm or Richardson’s owl after Sir John Richardson.
The boreal owl has an elusive nature which makes it difficult to observe due to its shyness towards human activity during daylight hours.
Its feathers are dark brown with white spots on the wings, face and throat while its underbelly is light grey/brown with darker streaks along the sides.
They have long talons used for catching prey such as mice, voles and other small rodents making them effective hunters at night-time when they become more active seeking food sources away from humans.
Their habitat consists of coniferous forests where they can find shelter among large trees that offer nesting sites high up off of ground level keeping them safe from predators like foxes and coyotes who roam around looking for easy meals near the forest floor.Scientific classification:
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Skuas are a group of predatory seabirds with seven species, all belonging to the genus Stercorarius.
They are also known as "Jaegers" in North America and their name originates from the Faroese word for Great Skua - skúgvur.
These birds typically inhabit coastal areas or open oceans where they feed on fish, krill and other marine creatures.
Skuas can be distinguished by their pointed wings which help them fly long distances while hunting food.
Their distinctive colouration varies depending on age and habitat but generally includes greyish brown upperparts and white underparts with black streaks along its belly area.
The overall size ranges from 24-40 cm making these one of the larger sea bird species.Scientific classification:
|Family||Stercorariidae Gray, 1871|
|Genus||Stercorarius Brisson, 1760|
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24. Sylviid warblers
The Sylviid warblers are a family of passerine birds found in Eurasia and Africa. They include the typical warblers as well as babblers that were formerly part of the Old World babbler family.
These birds have slender bodies, pointed wings, long tails and strong legs adapted for ground-dwelling habits like running or hopping along branches.
The male often has bright colors while females are usually duller in coloration with more muted plumage patterns than males.
Some species also show sexual dimorphism where one sex may be larger or smaller than its counterpart; for instance some species may have longer tail feathers on the female side compared to their male counterparts.
Many members of this group feed on insects but some specialize on seeds, fruits, nectar or even frogs.Scientific classification:
|Family||Sylviidae Leach, 1820|
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Treecreepers are small passerine birds found in wooded areas of the Northern Hemisphere and sub-Saharan Africa.
They have dull colored plumage, long curved bills, stiff tails and strong feet that help them to climb up tree trunks while searching for food such as insects and spiders.
The two genera Certhia and Salpornis include eleven species which can be identified by their distinct call - a high pitched 'tsee-tsit'.
Treecreepers build cup shaped nests on trees usually near the base or middle trunk using mosses, lichens, grasses with leaves inside them to provide insulation from cold temperatures.
These birds also use bark crevices during winter months when they shelter in groups together against extreme weather conditions.Scientific classification:
|Family||Certhiidae Leach, 1820|
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26. Common redshank
The Common Redshank is a wading bird found in Eurasia. It has long, red legs and dark grey wings. The body of the bird is brownish-grey with white patches on its sides and back.
Its bill is pointed and yellow to orange in colour, while its eyes are black or dark brown.
During migration they can be seen around coasts, estuaries and marshes where they feed mainly on small aquatic invertebrates such as worms, crustaceans and molluscs which it finds by probing mudflats with its bill.
They nest near wetland areas laying two to four eggs at a time during April or May depending on their location within Europe/Asia.
Redshanks often form large flocks when migrating southwards for wintering grounds in Africa or Asia making them easily visible from shorelinesScientific classification:
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Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds consisting of around 70 species. They are found across Europe, Africa, Asia and even Alaska with two migratory breeding species.
The three genera they belong to include wagtails which typically have medium to long tails; longclaws that can only be spotted in the Afrotropics; and pipits which possess the most cosmopolitan distribution worldwide.
These birds feed on insects as well as seeds for their diets and are usually seen in open habitats such grasslands or wetlands where food sources like invertebrates can easily be accessed.
Most Motacillidae species also use mud nests during breeding season making them easy targets for predators so it's important we protect these beautiful creatures.Scientific classification:
|Family||Motacillidae Horsfield, 1821|
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28. Mistle thrush
The Mistle Thrush is a beautiful bird that can be found across much of Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa. It has a pale grey-brown upper body, with black spots on its off-white underparts.
Its chin and throat are also whitish in colour. During the winter months northern and eastern populations migrate south but most other birds stay put year round forming small flocks along the way.
These thrushes have strong legs which they use to dig through soil looking for food such as slugs, snails or insects - although they will happily take advantage of fruit when it's available.
They're known for their melodious songs that often fill gardens during summertime - making them popular among many gardeners.Scientific classification:
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29. River warbler
The River Warbler is a small bird in the grass warbler genus Locustella. It can be found breeding in eastern and central Europe, as well as throughout the western Palearctic region.
During winter it migrates to inland Southern Africa from around the Zambezi River all the way down south of Pretoria.
Its name comes from its Latin diminutive "locusta" meaning grasshopper due to its habit of foraging for insects on low vegetation near water bodies like rivers or streams.
This bird has olive-brown upperparts with whitish underparts which have black streaks across them.
These streaked feathers help it blend into its natural habitat making it difficult to spot against reeds and tall grasses growing along riverbanks and wetland areas where they often frequent during migration season looking for food sources such as flying insects or small crustaceans that inhabit those environments.Scientific classification:
30. Pallas's sandgrouse
Pallas's sandgrouse is a medium to large bird in the sandgrouse family and named after German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. It was first mentioned by Marco Polo around 1300 as Bargherlac, from Turkmen bağırlak.
Its scientific name, Syrrhaptes paradoxus (S. pallasii), comes from Ancient Greek words meaning 'paradoxical plover'.
This species has several distinctive features: it prefers open habitats with sparse vegetation.
Its wings are short but powerful for fast flight; and males have special feathers on their belly that can soak up water which they later transfer to chicks or other members of the flock via special tongue movements.
These fascinating birds are an important part of our natural history and should be appreciated for all they bring us.Scientific classification:
The Fieldfare is a member of the thrush family, known for its vibrant plumage. It breeds in woodlands and scrub across Europe, but it's a rare breeder in Britain & Ireland.
During winter months it migrates southwards to countries such as North Africa and the Middle East where winters are milder.
The bird has grey-brown upperparts with black spots on its wings and tail feathers; these contrast sharply against its off-white underparts which have orange streaks running along them.
When threatened or startled they give an alarm call that sounds like 'tchack'. This species feeds mainly on berries from shrubs during autumn and winter before returning to their breeding grounds in springtime.Scientific classification:
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32. Short-toed snake eagle
The Short-toed Snake Eagle is a medium sized bird of prey that belongs to the Accipitridae family. It has a wide distribution across Europe, Asia and Africa.
The species name 'gallicus' refers to Gallia, which was an ancient region in Western Europe corresponding mostly to what is now France.
This raptor feeds mainly on snakes but also preys upon lizards and small mammals like rodents and bats.
Its diet allows it to thrive even in areas with limited food resources as its main source of nourishment are easily found reptiles.
The short-toed eagle prefers open habitats such as grasslands or steppes where they can hunt more efficiently using their sharp vision combined with agile flight manoeuvres which allow them to quickly snatch up their prey from long distances away.Scientific classification:
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33. Green sandpiper
The Green sandpiper is a small Old World wader with distinctive brown wings dotted with light spots. Its neck and chest have a delicate but contrasting pattern that sets it apart from other shorebirds of its kind.
It belongs to an ancient lineage within the genus Tringa, closely related to the solitary sandpiper (Tringa solitaria).
What's unique about these birds is their nesting habits; they nest in trees instead of on the ground like most scolopacids do.
This species can be found near bodies of water such as lakes, rivers or streams and are known for being fast fliers.
The green sandpiper makes up one part of our diverse avian population - it’s definitely worth learning more about.Scientific classification:
34. Lesser spotted eagle
The Lesser Spotted Eagle is a large Eastern European bird of prey that belongs to the Accipitridae family. It has an overall slender body shape, with males averaging around 3kg in weight and females weighing up to 4kg.
Its wingspan can reach up to 180 cm, making it one of the largest birds of prey in Europe. It has a distinctive dark brown upper plumage, pale beige under parts and yellow legs which have black ‘tiger’ stripes running along them.
The head is covered with white feathers while its eyes are yellowish-brown or orangey-red coloured depending on age.
They feed mainly on small mammals such as voles but also takes other smaller animals like reptiles or amphibians if available nearby.
In recent years their population numbers have declined due to habitat loss caused by human activities thus conservation measures for this species must be taken into account so as not only preserve these majestic creatures but also protect our environment at the same timeScientific classification:
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35. Horned grebe
The Horned Grebe is a small aquatic bird that belongs to the family of Podicipedidae. It has two known subspecies: P. auritus, which breeds in Palearctic regions, and P. cornutus which breeds in North America.
The Eurasian subspecies inhabits most parts of northern Europe and the Palearctic from Greenland to western China while its American counterpart can be found across Canada and Alaska down through California and some areas of Mexico's coasts too.
This species adapts easily to different wetland habitats like lakes, rivers or marshes with abundant vegetation cover for nesting purposes as well as providing protection against predators.
They are excellent divers who feed on fish eggs, insects, mollusks & crustaceans along with plant material such as seeds & grains when available seasonally throughout their range.Scientific classification:
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36. Snow bunting
The snow bunting is a small and colourful passerine bird found in the Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere.
With its bright white feathers, black markings on its wings and tail, it stands out amongst other birds that inhabit these cold climates.
This species has adapted well to surviving in this harsh environment; they nest under boulders or rocks so their eggs are shielded from predators and blizzards alike.
They feed mainly on insects during summer months but switch to seeds when winter arrives as they seek food sources which will not freeze over with ice.
The snow bunting is an important part of the local ecosystem due to providing sustenance for larger animals such as foxes and owls who rely upon them for survival throughout wintertime.Scientific classification:
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37. Great grey owl
The Great Grey Owl is the world's largest species of owl and is found across the Northern Hemisphere. It has many other names such as Phantom of The North, Cinereous Owl, Spectral Owl and Lapland Owl.
This majestic bird stands at an impressive length of about 24 inches with a wingspan that can reach up to five feet.
Its unique plumage allows it to blend in well with its natural environment which makes spotting this elusive creature quite difficult.
Despite being generally silent during most times, they are known for their deep hooting calls when mating or roosting season arrives.
These magnificent birds feed on small mammals like mice, voles and hares but have also been seen hunting larger prey such as ducks and grouse depending upon availability in their area.Scientific classification:
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38. Willow Ptarmigan
The Willow Ptarmigan is a bird belonging to the grouse family, Phasianidae. It can be found in northern Europe, particularly birch and other forests or moorlands regions of Scandinavia and Ireland.
The subspecies L. l. scotica was once considered its own species known as Red Grouse.
They are characterized by their red-brown plumage that changes with the seasons; during winter they grow white feathers for camouflage against snow cover while in springtime these change back to brownish tones for better blending into vegetation.
In general, this type of ptarmigan tends to live in flocks on open grounds where it feeds on buds and leaves from shrubs like willows, heathers and birches among others as well as insects when available .Scientific classification:
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Sandpiper is a type of wading bird that belongs to the family Scolopacidae. It is a diverse family that includes various species such as curlew and snipe.
Sandpipers have different bill lengths that allow them to feed on small invertebrates and creatures found in mud or soil.
Due to this diversity, different species can coexist in the same habitat without competing for food.
Sandpipers are commonly found near the coast but are also found in other wetland environments.
They are known for their slender legs, long beak, and streamlined body that enables them to move easily in and out of water.
Sandpipers are a unique and fascinating bird species that are interesting to observe in their natural habitat.Scientific classification:
|Family||Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815|
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40. European nightjar
The European nightjar is a nocturnal bird that can be found in Europe, the Palearctic region, Mongolia, and Northwestern China.
It belongs to the nightjar family and is known by several names, including the common goatsucker and Eurasian nightjar.
There are six subspecies of this bird. The nightjar is crepuscular, meaning it is most active during dawn and dusk.
Its Latin generic name comes from an old myth that the bird suckled from goats, causing them to stop giving milk.
The European nightjar is well-adapted to its nocturnal lifestyle with large eyes and wide gape that help it catch flying insects in the dark.
Its plumage is cryptic, blending in with its surroundings, making it difficult to spot. The bird usually nests on the ground, and the male performs aerial displays during breeding season.Scientific classification:
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41. Western jackdaw
The Western Jackdaw is a member of the crow family and is found throughout Europe, western Asia, and North Africa. While most populations are resident, some migrate south in the winter.
There are four subspecies, each with distinct plumage coloration. Despite being a common bird, the Western Jackdaw is a fascinating species known for its high intelligence and adaptability.
These birds have been observed using tools, working collaboratively to solve problems, and even recognizing individual human faces.
With their distinctive and varied calls, they are often heard before they are seen, chattering away in the trees or on rooftops.
Due to their remarkable intelligence and adaptability, the Western Jackdaw is widely regarded as a beloved symbol of wildlife in many cultures.Scientific classification:
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42. Eurasian magpie
The Eurasian magpie, also known as the common magpie, is a bird found in the northern part of the Eurasian continent. It belongs to the corvids family and is part of the "monochrome" magpies.
The bird is a resident breeder that is always available in Europe. The only other magpie found in Europe is the Iberian magpie.
The magpie is often used as a synonym for the Eurasian magpie by English speakers.
The bird has a distinct black and white appearance and is known for its intelligent behavior. It can imitate sounds heard in its environment and also demonstrates self-awareness.
The Eurasian magpie is omnivorous and feeds on insects, small mammals, and fruits.
It forms monogamous pairs that last for a lifetime and builds nests in trees or bushes. The bird is not endangered and is often regarded as a nuisance due to its habit of raiding gardens for food.Scientific classification:
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43. Red-necked grebe
Red-necked grebe, also known as Podiceps grisegena, is a migratory aquatic bird that can be found in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
During the winter, they prefer calm waters beyond the waves near ocean coasts or large lakes.
In terms of breeding, these birds breed in shallow bodies of fresh water like lakes, marshes, or fish-ponds.
They are not dependent on specific habitats but seem to prefer areas that provide them with enough food supplies.
These birds are known for their unique red neck and prefer to swim underwater when threatened.
Overall, the Red-necked Grebe is an interesting and unusual bird with distinct physical characteristics and behaviors.Scientific classification:
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44. Greater spotted eagle
The greater spotted eagle is a large bird of prey that belongs to the Accipitridae family. It is also known as the spotted eagle and has feathered legs that indicate its membership in the subfamily Aquilinae, also called the "booted eagles."
Although previously considered a member of the Aquila genus, it has been recently reclassified in the Clanga genus, along with other eagle species.
The greater spotted eagle is a magnificent bird with a wingspan of up to 2 meters and is known for its hunting skills.
Due to habitat loss and degradation, its population has been declining, leading it to be classified as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List.
Conservation efforts are needed to ensure the survival and protection of this majestic bird.Scientific classification:
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45. Eurasian woodcock
The Eurasian woodcock is a small wading bird that can be found in temperate and subarctic areas of Eurasia.
This bird is perfectly adapted to its woodland habitat with its cryptic camouflage of reddish-brown upperparts and buff-coloured underparts.
The woodcock has amazing eyesight, as its eyes are set far back on its head to give it 360-degree vision.
With its long, sensitive bill, the woodcock probes in the ground for food, making it vulnerable to cold weather. Generally, woodcocks feed on earthworms and small insects.
Despite their hunting and feeding behaviors, woodcocks are very peaceful birds. They are also shy and like to hide from people.
During mating season, woodcocks perform courtship flights at twilight or night. These courtship flights begin and end in the same spot, and are accompanied by a nasal "peenting" call.
Overall, the Eurasian woodcock is an interesting bird, well-adapted to life in the forest.Scientific classification:
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46. Wood sandpiper
The wood sandpiper is a small wading bird found in Eurasia. It is the smallest of the shanks, which are mid-sized long-legged waders.
The bird's scientific name is Tringa glareola, with Tringa being a New Latin name given to the green sandpiper and glareola meaning "shining" or "gleaming." It is a thrush-sized bird with a white-rumped and tail-bobbing appearance.
Aristotle, an Ancient Greek philosopher, mentioned a similar bird that inspired the genus name Tringa.
The wood sandpiper is a migratory species, breeding in northern Europe and Asia and wintering in Africa, southern Asia, and Australia.
It inhabits marshes, wet meadows, and forest edges, feeding on insects, crustaceans, and small fish.
Conservation efforts are needed to ensure the survival of this bird species.Scientific classification:
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47. Waxwing birds
Waxwings are a type of bird that are recognized by their unique plumes of waxy feathers on their wings.
These birds have a distinctive look, with a crest on their heads and a band of black feathers across their eyes.
They typically feed on fruit, and can often be seen in large flocks during the winter months. Waxwings are known for their soft, high-pitched whistles and are an interesting addition to any bird watcher's repertoire.
These birds are found throughout North America, Europe, and Asia, and are a favorite among bird enthusiasts for their unique appearance and behavior.
Waxwings are considered a symbol of good luck, and their presence can be seen as a blessing in many cultures.
Overall, the waxwing is a fascinating bird that stands out among its feathered counterparts.Scientific classification:
48. Steller's eider
Steller's eider is a small and fast-flying diving duck that migrates through the Arctic region. It breeds along the coastlines of eastern Russia and Alaska, where it is considered the rarest of the eider species.
This bird has a burnt-ish color on its belly, which is why it is called "the bird that sat in the campfire" by the Inupiat people.
Unfortunately, the Steller's eider has suffered extensively from habitat loss and population decline, affecting its breeding and survival.
This species is under protection in many areas to prevent further decline and to ensure its conservation.Scientific classification:
|Genus||Polysticta Eyton, 1836|
49. Blyth's reed warbler
Blyth's reed warbler is a migratory bird that breeds in the Palearctic and easternmost Europe. During winter, it is commonly found in Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka, where it is one of the most frequently seen warblers.
This species is a rare vagrant to western Europe. It is named after Edward Blyth, a British zoologist.
The bird belongs to the genus Acrocephalus and is considered an Old World warbler. Although it is widespread, little else is known about its behavior or habitat.
Overall, Blyth's reed warbler is an interesting bird that migrates over long distances, making it a fascinating species to observe and study.Scientific classification:
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